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In order to test the relationship between the trust in police and the presence of democracy in Africa, this study conducted a regression analysis between these datasets. The independent variable in the study was the trust in police whereas the dependent variable was the presence of democracy.
In order to obtain the dataset that measured the presence of democracy, the citizens were asked: "In your opinion how much of a democracy is your country today?" The study conducted regression analysis for the data collected from 5 African countries as well as the overall African continent. Every regression analysis produced R-Square values varying from 8% to 26%. The regression analysis of the datasets that represented the entire African continent showed an R-Square value of 8.14%.
It is clear from the results of the study that the extent to which citizens believe their country is democratic depends on their level of trust of the police. Therefore, this study supports the conclusion made from the literature review that trust in the police is an integral part of any democracy.
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Despite the increase in academic studies into total quality management (TQM) during the past decade, there still seem to be relatively few empirical studies that either confirm or contradict any of the widely accepted theories. The vast majority of papers are of a descriptive or conceptual nature, rather than sources of research evidence. Moreover, there is still no clear consensus as to what TQM involves and the interrelationships between techniques and concepts. Consequently, there are few frameworks of practical use to organizations undergoing TQM programmes.
In recent literature, the majority of useful evidence is based on case studies. A few papers involve more generalizable research methodologies. A smaller number of research papers attempt to synthesize established theory into a practical framework and of these only Saraph et al. (1989) used an empirical study to support a synthesis.
It is unlikely, therefore, that any framework will explain this variety of perceptions. The advantage of any empirically derived framework, however, would be two-fold. First, it could be generated from an amalgam of different individual perceptions; second, if it is obtained in a scientifically valid manner, it would be difficult to dismiss in any way other than to repeat similarly scientifically sound studies. In light of the current lack of scientific studies in the subject literature, the development of a sound empirically-based framework would be a very valuable stimulus for the development of our understanding of TQM.
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Whatever the reasons for the divergence of demography and biology, demography has now effectively shaken off the spectre of eugenics, which biology has still not succeeded in doing. This is perhaps a little unfair given that demography was involved quite explicitly in promoting population control in the decades after WWII in the interests of curbing global population growth, in some cases at least with aims which skirted dangerously close to eugenics. Those applying an evolutionary perspective to human behavior in recent decades have in contrast taken care to emphasise the errors in eugenicist science and have been much less keen to engage in policy.
Demography has since had its own debates about the controversial population control movement (the well-respected demography journal Population and Development Review published three highly critical book review of Fatal Misconception, including one by prominent demographer and recent president of the IUSSP John Cleland), and now population policies typically have an explicit human rights, rather than population control, agenda, but it is still perhaps ironic that the social science community tends to regard demography as a respectable social science whereas the application of evolutionary biology to human behaviour is not yet wholly accepted as a reputable endeavour.